Top 10 Programming Languages for Mobile App Development in 2023

By 2028, smartphone users will rake up 7.7 billion globally. The more usage of smartphones, the higher the demand for mobile apps. 

The growing demand for mobile has immensely enhanced the capabilities of apps in terms of features, security, technology, and much more. 

Competition to build the most efficient and accessible mobile application is getting more fierce than ever. Many modifications are happening in programming languages to make the entire mobile app development process smooth for developers. 

Using these languages, developers can carve out their route towards growth and advancement in the field. 

In the era of low-code app development, more than 700 programming languages exist for developers globally. These programming languages overcome the shortcomings of low-code app development frameworks regarding user interface, customization, etc.

However, with the availability of several programming languages, choosing the right one to create mobile apps often becomes challenging.

Don’t worry! To save you time in research, we have rounded up the top 10 programming languages for mobile app development. Review their pros and cons, and pick what is best suited for you.

Let’s dive in!

10 Best Programming Languages for Mobile App Development

Top 10 Programming Languages for Mobile App Development in 2023

The programming languages we mentioned on our list are utilized by several top hybrid app development companies.

Whether you are a beginner or a seasonal app developer, here is the list of the best programming languages and their pros and cons to help you pick the finest one for your next project.  

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is one of the top programming languages for mobile app development. Since its introduction in 1995, this language seems to take over the mobile app development market. JavaScript is still among the popular app language which is preferred by many developers.

Using Node.js, this app programming language can be used on mobile applications created on different development frameworks. Plus, developers can use this language with AJAX, CSS, and HTML to build functional and high-quality apps. 

Pros of JavaScript

  • JavaScript is a very simple programming language. It is very easy to learn and considered one of the best programming languages for beginners.
  • JavaScript is used by almost every developer in the app development industry due to its simplicity. 
  • This app language minimizes server load.
  • JavaScript offers multiple functionalities in the user interface.
  • This programming language is very responsive and quick. This helps developers to run this language on client-side browsers. 

Cons of JavaScript

  • JavaScript doesn’t offer seamless debugging. As browsers don’t notify issues, detecting errors becomes quite tricky.  
  • Even a single issue can freeze the entire JavaScript.
  • At times, JavaScript executes different results on varied browsers.
  • JavaScript cannot be used for a copy. 

2. Python

Python is another top programming language in the market today. This easy-to-learn programming language is getting even more popular with time. Codes written in this programming language are more sustainable. Additionally, writing code in Python is comparatively easier than in C++ and C. 

Python is one of the oldest programming languages, but many developers, especially beginners, still prefer it. This programming language is versatile and offers several software options in development. The simplicity and readability features make Python the best for prototyping and building apps with complex functionalities. 

Pros of Python

  • This programming language is easy to read, understand, and write.
  • Python supports multi-systems and platforms.
  • This programming language allows developers to use multiprocessing and multithreading.
  • Python provides support to libraries.
  • The development process in Python minimizes the program cost.

Cons of Python

  • Limitations in designs make the testing a time-consuming process.
  • This programming language takes up colossal memory space.
  • Another issue of this programming language is the runtime error.
  • Not recommended for developing gaming apps.

3. Kotlin

Kotlin is another of the best programming languages for mobile app development. It is an open-source programming language that developers vastly prefer. This language is used for Native, Android, and JavaScript. Kotlin is very compatible with Java languages, which makes it widely preferred. 

Uber, Pinterest, and Evernote are some big companies that have utilized Kotlin to include more interactive and advanced features in their mobile applications. This programming language can be used to develop server-side apps, Android apps, client-side apps, and much more. 

Pros of Kotlin

  • This programming language saves time for developers as it is highly compatible with existing Java code.
  • Maximum productivity due to concise and intuitive syntax.
  • Kotlin has clear codes.
  • IDEs and SDKs can maintain this programming language.

Cons of Kotlin

  • Compilation speed is comparatively slower than Java.
  • A limited number of tutorials and learning sources are available for beginners.

4. SQL

SQL (Structured Query Language) was developed by Raymond F. Boyce and Donald D. Chamberlain for IBM. This programming language stores manipulates, and retrieves data within a database management system. It enables developers to access, modify, and extract info from databases.  SQL is a global standard RDBMS (regional database management system).

Pros of SQL

  • Data retrieval in SQL is fast and efficient.
  • This language enables developers to perform data retrieval without coding. 
  • Easy to read and learn programming language.
  • Data consistency is perfect.
  • SQL is best for tables having vast numbers of rows.
  • This language can be used on laptops, PCs, and servers without operating system limitations. 

Cons of SQL

  • Some versions of SQL are comparatively more expensive than its alternatives.
  • A challenging user interface makes it difficult to access the database.

5. C++

C++ is another of the best programming languages for mobile app development. This app language can be used for different kinds of tasks. C++ can be used to develop GUI-based applications, game apps, banking applications, real-time mathematical simulations, and much more. 

C++ is considered one of the outstanding programming languages for developing high-quality apps. C was the first language that Dennis Ritchie developed in 1972. C++ was the first Android app development that established objects and classes in an app programming language. Using this Android app development language, developers can combine features of high-level and low-level languages.

Pros of C++

  • This app language can be used on different interfaces and operating systems as it offers platform freedom.
  • Using C++, developers can manipulate data on a particular level.
  • C++ offers memory management control, one of its most significant advantages.
  • This app language can be used for developing structure, logic, and procedures.
  • Using large-scale and small-scale data is highly flexible in this app language.
  • The availability of several tutorials and guides makes it easy for beginners to learn this language.

Cons of C++

  • Functions such as global variables, friend functions, and pointers make C++ vulnerable to security threats.
  • As its syntax is complex, it is tough for new programmers to learn.
  • The background garbage collection feature is missing in this app language. 

6. Objective-C

Objective-C is another programming language on our list that is quite popular among developers. This Android mobile application language is used for developing iOS and OS X. Objective-C is one of the best coding languages that provides dynamic runtime to the C language and object-oriented features for programming. 

Objective-C enables developers to add custom behaviors to existing classes rather than creating entirely new ones. Developers can easily add novel aspects and qualities to a class extension using the existing source codes. 

Pros of Objective-C

  • Apps that are written and developed using Objective-C are comparatively more stable than others.
  • Objective-C has better support for binary frameworks.
  • Developers can use Objective C++ and C++ as a source of the data.
  • Objective-C offers many dynamic features, including method swizzling.

Cons of Objective-C

  • Limitation in strict typing leads to tougher developers to trace bugs.
  • As Objective-C is an old language, it can be complex to learn.
  • This programming language lacks a namespacing feature.
  • As Objective-C is old, there are security issues in this programming language. 

7. HTML5

HTML5 is another top programming language for mobile app development. This programming language is the latest and fifth upgrade done to the old HTML (Hyper Text Markup language). The essential purpose of this upgrade was to align it with the latest advancements in the programming language field. 

HTML5 is used to develop and structure the content displayed on different web pages. CSS and JavaScript can be used alongside HTML5. This programming language features numerous improvements in website capabilities, content development, and more. Its features include scripting and markup elements and API (application programming interface) functionalities. 

Pros of HTML5

  • JavaScript is functional within the web browser.
  • Improvised algorithms save the programs from incorrect HTML code.
  • Data is stored on Web SQL databases.
  • This programming language supports SVGs (Scalable Vector Graphics).
  • HTML 5 has many new features, including data, audio, commands, summary, etc. 

Cons of HTML5

  • This programming language is still in an improving stage.
  • Lagging issues on some devices exist.
  • Some features are missing that offer a seamless gaming experience to users.
  • Websites designed on HTML5 need modern web browsers to be accessed.

8. Swift

Swift is one of the most popular and influential programming languages used to develop iOS, tvOS, macOS, and watchOS software. Many developers prefer this programming language because of its concise syntax. Swift supports most modern features which has made this programming language highly picked.

Apple Inc. developed Swift to write safe, easy-to-use, and concise code for operating systems. This programming language is very intuitive and powerful.  It has simplified grammar and syntax, making it easy to read and write. This programming language allows developers to run, test, and package Swift’s feasible code and libraries.

Pros of Swift

  • This programming language provides easy-to-read source codes.
  • Using Swift, developers can easily add new features to the app.
  • Apps that are built on Swift have fewer crashes and bugs.
  • This programming language is comparatively faster than Objective-C and other languages.
  • Even with fewer codes, swift doesn’t compromise on features and performance.
  • The app development process is entirely interactive.

Cons of Swift

  • As Swift is regularly updated, it becomes an unstable programming language for working.
  • The number of Swift users is comparatively less than that of other languages.
  • Compiling the code in Swift is time-consuming.

9. Java

Java is among the most preferred programming languages to build mobile applications. As this language is object-oriented, developers can build a range of apps without any limitations. Using this programming language, developers can easily optimize the speed of sending and receiving messages. 

With the help of JVM (Java Virtual Machine), this programming language can run on any system. This makes the entire process of app development highly scalable and cost-effective. Many apps in the Play Store are written with Java as it is one of the most supported languages by Google. 

Pros of Java

  • By reusing source codes, different programs can be created easily.
  • Reading, learning, compiling, and debugging are easy.
  • Java offers comparatively better security features than other programming languages.
  • This language supports multi-thread programming. 
  • Object-oriented programming language. 

Cons of Java

  • Lacks in performance and responsiveness.
  • Utilizes a lot of memory space.
  • This programming language lacks a backup feature.
  • Average user interface.

10. React

React is another of the best programming languages for mobile development. It is an easy-to-read and easy-to-use programming language to build desktop applications. Apps that are built on React are highly modular and flexible UI components. 

It offers numerous open-source libraries that developers can exploit to build react apps with plentiful functionalities. React helps developers to build a UI that enhances the overall speed of the application. 

Pros of React

  • React offers beginners several easy-to-understand tutorials, resources, and a supply of documents.
  • This language supports the development of machine-readable codes.
  • Virtual DOM (document object module) enables developers to keep a prototype of UI in memory and synchronize it with a real one. 
  • Offers a rich JavaScript library.

Cons of React

  • Developers find it difficult to adapt to continuous updates.
  • Lack of proper documentation.

The Bottomline

Choosing the correct programming language is essential to make your app successful in this competitive market. Ensure you add all the functionalities in your app that are highly demanded in this modern world.

We hope you have shortlisted some of these programming languages to develop your next application. All the languages on our list are popular among developers. 

Now, start working on your project with any of the above languages, and do share your feedback with us, as it matters a lot!

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