What do you plan on using the laptop for? This is because laptops are not one-stop shop portable machines. Uses can be anything from gaming, light office work, Computer rendering, multimedia work, streaming media/Youtube, remoting in to another computer, heavy office work, presenting presentations, average college student, Engineering student, Skype machine, and Simple internet browsing screen are just a few of the general reasons one would want a laptop and each configuration is different from the next. So before even saying "I want a laptop" be able to honestly explain why you need/want one.
After that know some below mentioned basic things that you may need.
Usually laptops come with Intel Processors. i3, i5 and latest i7 processors. i3 is suitable for everyday needs with lesser gaming and intensive taks. i5 is medium level and most laptops come with i5. Any program can be run smoothly on i5 processor. If you have money to spend, go for i7, but won't be much usefull for daily needs including gaming.
====> i5 is good for intense gaming and other Programming tasks.
4GB or above is sufficient. To be able to run intensive tasks ( and extreme gaming ), go for 6 or 8GB. 2GB costs around Rs. 1800, but having extra RAM is always good.
|Laptop you need|
If you watch lot of videos and can spend around Rs. 7000 extra, you can get a Full HD Screen, but normal screen is also good.
4. Graphic Card (GPU - Graphical Processing Unit):
Most laptops have inbuilt Intel Graphics. It is sufficient for small games. But at advanced level, GPU can be used for many other purposes. If you are a gamer and plays lot of medium-to-high graphics games, then buy a laptop with 1 or 2 GB external graphics (external means in addition to Intel or inbuilt graphics). It is not size that matters (1 GB or 2GB), it is how good that GPU is. Look for a latest card, and 1 GB latest card might be far better than 2 GB old Graphic Card.
5. Screen Size: Common size is 15.6 inch across (diagonal to diagonal), and is good for gaming and videos. On a smaller screen everything appears small, but if you don;t want to carry 1.5 to 2.5 KG of weight ( for 15.6 screens) go for 13 inch. Going for smaller screen size laptops also reduces the cost down a lot (more than Rs. 6000).
6. Operating System: Although Windows dominates in this area, if you are new with computers, buy windows and later can install Linux. If you are a student and looking for experiments, some laptops come with Linux pre-isntalled. These cost around Rs. 6000 less because you are not buying Windows OS. But having Windows OS might be useful.
NOTE: Try to see if you can get a LED-backlit keyboard. It helps a lot while typing in the dark.
Apart from this things like Speakers, Bluetooth, Wifi and other adaptors etc.. all come with every laptop, but be sure to check once before buying.
As I mentioned above, What laptop you need depends highly on your application
1) If you want a laptop only for presentations and office work you need to focus on the battery life. Less capacity of HDD is okay(500GB) or even SSD would do. Screen size matters and should be ideally 15". Ultrabooks are the expensive option here. Graphics are optional.
2) If you want to game, watch high quality movies and run heavy video processing softwares you need to focus on having good 2GB graphics, 8GB+ RAM and i5 or better processor. Screen should also be 1080p and 15" for better experience.
3)If you want to run heavy softwares and do some coding and that kind of general work again i5 or better processor should do and 4GB+ RAM. But go for better HDD space(1TB+) and 2GB graphics.
So to sum it up following are important specs in laptops:
3) HDD/SSD space
5) Battery life
1) Backlit keyboard
2) HDMI and VGA port
3) Good cooling
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